Sure-enough, overall mean urinary citrate is elevated in the rats provided K-cit (K-cit, 182±3

Sure-enough, overall mean urinary citrate is elevated in the rats provided K-cit (K-cit, 182±3

cuatro mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).

Dining table 1.

Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl

Viewpoints was shown once the mean±SEM. Pee try gathered having twenty-four hours at six, a dozen, and 18 wk to decide solute membership given that explained in the Concise Methods.

K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).

Urine Supersaturation

K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.

Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Gel Membership

Gel quantities of calcium and you can PTH didn’t differ anywhere between K-cit–given and KCl-provided mice, if you’re solution phosphate account were ;fed mice ( Contour step 3 ).

K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Stone Development

K-cit didn’t change the amount of stones shaped or the quantity of calcification on the kidneys ( Contour cuatro ). Most of the mice designed rocks of comparable dimensions and thickness and had comparable amounts of calcification for the kidney and get together program.

Kidney stone creation and you may calcification wasn’t additional in the rats provided KCl or K-cit. At the end of the 18-times data, the the total amount from kidney stones and you can calcification are determined by three observers because the described from the To the point Methods. The total amount of kidney calcification was also determined since the described on the To the level Tips. (A) User radiographs out-of kidneys off rats searching KCl otherwise K-cit. Calcification scores with the pictures shown are given since the a reference. (B) Quantitation away from stone formation and you may calcification throughout rats choosing KCl otherwise K-cit. Viewpoints was mean±SEM.

Obvious stones was indeed dissected off representative kidneys off one another teams and you may assessed having crystal morphology. The brand new diffraction activities for all reviewed samples was in fact congruent to the diffraction development from biologic apatite, a cap brick ( Contour 5 , top). With use of indication electron microscopy (TEM), all of the kidney brick crystals got a rod- otherwise needle-including shape, just as the morphology away from biologic apatite crystals ( Figure 5 , bottom) and you may in lieu of new octahedral crystal morphology of CaOx.